Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF, is a human cytokine associated with systemic inflammation and is an integral component of the acute phase reaction. Primarily, macrophages produce this cytokine, which has multiple regulatory functions in the immune system. TNF can induce fever, cachexia, insulin resistance and apoptotic cell death. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα is primarily produced by activated macrophages, which release it in response to cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and other bacterial products. It is a cytokine that takes part in systemic inflammation and is an integral component of the acute phase reaction. TNFα is also involved in cellular adhesion and regulation of lipid metabolism.
Tumor necrosis factor α tnf α necrosis factor-alpha is a cytokine primarily secreted by activated macrophages. It is normally found associated with immune cells as a homotrimeric type II transmembrane protein, but can also be produced as a soluble lysis product of metalloprotease cleavage. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) plays an essential role in the inflammatory response, especially to infection and sepsis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (also known as TNFα and cachexin) is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and is a member of a group of cytokines that all stimulate the acute phase reaction. It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it can be produced by many other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. TNFα belongs to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily; other members of this superfamily include TNFβ (also known as lymphotoxin α), lymphotoxin-β (also known as TNFβ), and LIGHT (TNFSF14). Its molecular weight is between 17kDa and 19kDa.
Growth factor or TGF beta-1 is a human poly peptide encoded by the TGFB1 gene. This gene is present on the Q arm of chromosome 19. TGF beta-1 is a cytokine and belongs to transforming growth factor beta super family. TGF beta-1 regulates several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, cell growth, cell differentiation, cell motility and apoptosis. TGF beta-1 is found throughout the body but abundantly found in skeletal tissues regulating bone and cartilage formation. Researchers first discovered TGF beta-1 as a 25 kilo dalton protein in human platelets. It showed potential in healing wounds later…
What is human transforming growth factor beta 1: Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGFβ-1 is a human polypeptide encoded by the TGFB1 gene. This gene is on the q arm of chromosome 19. TGFβ-1 is a cytokine and belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. TGFβ-1 regulates several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, cell growth, cell differentiation, cell motility, and apoptosis. Human transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ-1) is a multifunctional protein that regulates a variety of cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The precursor form of TGFβ-1 is processed proteolytically and the mature form is 125 amino acids in length with a predicted molecular weight of 13.2 kDa. TGFβ-1 is a member of the TGFβ superfamily. In humans, TGFβ-1 is encoded by the TGFB1 gene which maps to chromosome 19q13.1.
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of polypeptide growth factors plays a major role in cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as in other cellular processes. TGF-beta is synthesized as precursor proteins that are cleaved to yield the mature active peptides. These peptides are secreted by nearly all nucleated cells in the body, and they have been found in the conditioned medium of many cell types. The TGF-beta superfamily includes at least five distinct growth factors: TGF-beta 1, 2, 3; inhibin/activin; and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). All of these molecules are structurally related and share common signal transduction pathways.
The transforming growth factors belong to a family of polypeptide growth factors that regulate DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, and protein synthesis in cells. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is produced by normal cells and tumor cells and has been implicated both in tumor promotion and suppression.
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